India (Bharat) – Pre-history

India (Bharat) –  Pre-history


Pre-historic human civilization all over the world reached a high level of nomadic or semi-settled way of life in a relatively very short time, but thereafter remained rather static for long ages until driven to change because of climate and other conditions. It was only in the Indian sub-continent, in the North-Western Himalayan Region, that better climatic conditions, easier and consistent availability of even surplus food that allowed humans, once there, to grow their population to the necessary size and density to allocate resources and time for thinking and developing Spirituality, Philosophy and an understanding of our place in the Universe by observing the environment and the stars over long periods of time and drawing rational conclusions with an understanding of the underlying mathematical relationships and even develop Technology. The Ice covering much of the European and North American continents would not have allowed for any civilization to develop there then.

Quotations for Consideration

“Man is only a some total of his learnings and experiences as memories in his mind. If he starts to lose those memories, than what does he become. So too for a Nation, it’s history, culture, belief systems and the willingness of its people to cooperatively work together for common good, makes it so. Losing these memories or traits leads to dissolving the Nation.– Anon


Human inhabitation in the Indian Subcontinent is from over 75,000 years ago. Within the next 10,000 years they had moved down the coast and across the South-East Asian Island coast (Sundaland) into Australia and also, up the eastern Asian coastline into China and even Japan. By then they had also, moved up into the upper reaches of the Rivers Indus and Saraswati and into the many closely connected and sheltered mountain valleys in the foothills of the western Himalayas. Protected from the effects of the Ice-Age by the Himalayas and the Seas and benefiting from the refreshing effects of the melting snows and the Monsoons, this region, with its abundance of food, – fish, birds, small-game, fruits, roots and even wild grains, all within easy reach resulted in an relatively easy life that allowed for growth of an adequate density of population and for Time to be spent for the seeking of knowledge, development of skills and technology, for observing the skies, delving into philosophical questions and also cultivation of crops, all leading to the development of civilization. North-East Asia, Africa and Australia were also free of Ice, but the climate and living conditions there were not conducive to settled life, only nomadic, and hence developed no real civilization. North America and almost all of Europe was under the Ice and the Southern European region along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea was very difficult to live in and was also, occupied by the Neanderthals. The western parts of Asia and parts of Central Asia, along the edges of the Ice sheets also, allowed only small populations of Nomadic or Cave dwellers, Denisovans and other hominids.

Thus, proper civilization developed only in the North-Western Indian region and over the Millennia spread from there to the rest of the world.


The following is an understanding of the history of our homo sapien ancients and their entry into the Indian sub-continent, as gained by a reasonably well – read person across multiple disciplines, seeking with an open mind, to put together a coherent history of those times. Some of the evidence for such a history is proven, however, much is based on speculative evidence, yet to be adequately proven, but which can be considered as having a reasonable basis, as today even many so-called experts argue both for and against.

The reader is requested to kindly keep in mind that many so-called myths and legends must have had some kernels of truth in them, as otherwise why would they have lasted in our collective memory for such long ages.

Jared Diamond in his book- ‘Guns, Germs and Steel’ and Sanjeev Sanyal in his books-’ The Incredible History of India’s Geography ‘and the ‘Ocean of Churn’, have both demonstrated how greatly geography affects history.

Ancient History

The Ice ages, that dominated the landscapes of the Northern Hemisphere, most of it being a land mass for much of human history, did not much affect the land area of the Indian sub- continent, protected as it was by the Himalayas and the Southern Ocean. Further south, Sundaland, the extension of South-East Asia, was also, protected by the Southern Ocean. The Northern and Eastern Asiatic region was cold but somewhat protected from the Ice because of the seas and had some archaic hominin populations there.

The modern Human species are said to have evolved about 250 to 300,000 years ago and were mostly living in South and South – East Africa along the tidal basins of the seacoast that also provided protection from predators. Such prolonged life of aquatic exposure led to many physiological and hormonal changes. The protein and other nutrient rich and easy to eat sea food, even when raw, seafood led to better brain development. Spending extensive time, standing, moving, swimming and diving and interactive playing and catching fish in the seas also led to brain development and, better leg and lower body strength and posture and loss of body hair, all enabling greater running ability, and also evolved an improved voice box and, middle ear features that gave them better breath control, speech and hearing and thermal regulation and other capabilities of a Waterside/Aquatic Ape (Google for more info). Also such marine diet seems to have led to the development of a smaller jaw and a flatter face and other hormonal changes such as lesser testosterone, the hormone leading to a very aggressive and dominating attitude seen in other hominids, which does not allow for larger social groups, and also to increased oxytoxcin hormone that leads to better social relationships.

The other archaic hominins not having evolved all such capabilities seemed to have been content hunting game in the swamp lands along the boundaries of the lakes in the Great Rift valley and across the savannah there and gathering food from there.

1,25,000 years ago, before the last Ice age, the sea levels were 4 to 6 meters higher than they are today, making walking out of Africa into Asia, a far more difficult, dangerous and an unlikely possibility.

Neanderthals, Denisovans and other hominid species living huddled in caves struggling for survival, as hunter – gatherers; at the edges of the massive glaciers, as ice deposits covered most of Europe and even up to the Mediterranean Coast, even up to as late as 30,000 BCE, did not allow any meaningful Homo Sapien Sapiens presence there in those times.

The few modern humans that may have later forayed into Southern Europe, even Northern Asia and even into the Middle East, did not long survive the weather or the conflict with the Neanderthals and others there.

The early human species in South and South-East Africa and along the Great Rift Valley area that later moved into the northern and central Africa and North- East Asia, were also, not able develop beyond a nomadic and tribal lifestyle.

The greatest volcanic eruption even going back into prehistoric times was the eruption of Mount Toba in Indonesia around 74,000 BCE. This was over 100 times larger than the largest eruption of historic times, Mount Tambora, again in Indonesia, in 1815. The Mount Toba eruption deposited an ash layer of about 15 cms to a few metres across most of the Indian sub-continent and also, across large parts of South-East Asia and South and East Africa.

It also, caused ash dispersion into the upper atmosphere that is estimated to have caused a volcanic winter like effect, blocking sunlight, across the world for about 6 to 10 years and also resulting in considerable acid rain. This caused about 3/4ths of the plant life and the bigger herbivores, dependent on this plant life, and even the many carnivores dependent on these herbivores, to all die out.

This was the ‘game changer’ event that compelled the Humans from South Africa to migrate along the seacoast northwards, as the sea would have continued to then be the best source of food. The Ice sheets and the Neanderthals in the North were perhaps the reason to also, make them continue to migrate along the seacoast, from one tidal basin or shallow sea to the next, and as the sea levels in this Ice age were then about 130 to 140 metres below the present levels, making it easier to cross into the Indian sub-continent and move along its western coast down to the southern end, and up again along its eastern coast into Myanmar and again down the coast of South-east Asia into Sundaland and further into Australia. However, some seemed to have remained or retreated into South Africa and continued to live a hunter gather/nomadic life and are today known as the San Bushmen or Khoisan.

A civilization develops only where a population of at least about 30,000 live in settlements having proximity, to allow for constant interaction and where the environment allows for easy sustenance and hence, allocation of scarce resources to some who can then spend their time for study, observation and seeking, for the benefit of all. (See- Understanding Varna, Caste/Jati & Untouchability)

It was only in the Indian sub-continent and later in the South-East Asian Region, that conditions allowed for growth of settlements having adequate population density that were relatively flourishing with the capability to spare and allocate necessary Resources and Time for developing a civilization and expanding over the region from as early as about 60,000 BCE. It may be noted that even the people who had migrated to Australia even as early as 60,000 BCE could not develop any such density of population and thus any civilization more than Tribal/Nomadic.

The Toba eruption and the resultant earthquakes in the Himalayas gave rise, in about 74000 BCE to one of the mightiest rivers of ancient times. The River Saraswati, which with the Rivers Yamuna and Sutlej as tributaries was over 20 to 25 kms in width across the plains of India down to the Rann of Kutch and the sea. To the west of the Saraswati River flowed another great river, the River Indus and to the east was the great River Ganges, both though large rivers were not then as mighty as the Saraswati. Paleontology tells us that the ‘Sapta Sindhu’ (the seven Indus- Saraswati rivers) region and the Gangetic River plains were, at that time, more savannah type, while the lands further to the east and down south were all densely forested, and with many predators and reptiles.

Genetic studies inform us that around this time, the human population had reached a bottleneck of about 1000, or at most 10,000 individuals. It is from this tiny number that the 7.5 billion of us humans today trace our ancestry. In-fact, mitochondrial or maternal DNA, evidences that we all are descendants of only FIVE, or perhaps at most TWELVE, mothers from that bottleneck population. The children of the other mothers in that population having all died out over these millennia.

Having populated both the coasts of India and slowly moved inland along the various rivers across the country, the humans in about 10 to 20,000 years (i.e., by about 60,000 to 50,000 BCE) had also, moved into South-East Asia and again along the coast up into China and Japan and down into Sundaland and onwards into Australia.

Movement into, and settlement in the densely forested areas of the rest of the Indian Sub-continent and the South-East Asian region of Sundaland, would have only been possible at a much later time, perhaps around 40,000 BCE, or even later, for large migrant groups of humans from the North-West Indian region and from the Indus-Saraswati river valleys, having by then, grown into a sizable population, developed the ability to work together in large groups and coordinate adequate efforts and resources, to extensively clear the dense forested areas, deal with the predators there, and cultivate plants (agriculture) and develop better marine travel capabilities, and settle there, rather than just migrating along the sea-coast, that settlements were established in the hinterland of the Sub-continent and in Sundaland. (Google – ‘Sundaland’ for more information)

After the inundation or subsidence of Sundaland, perhaps at the end of the Younger Dryas Ice Age (about 12900 BCE), major human migration is thought to have taken place from India and South-East Asia all across the world. There is evidence of some earlier migration from the ’Sapta Sindhu’ (Indus-Saraswati) region into the Middle East, Southern Europe and Central and North-Eastern Asia and return, as the earlier Ice age there began receding about 35 to 25,000 years ago. The Rig-Veda has mention of Northern Lights, the Aurora Borealis, evidencing such travel.

Now, for those who might question the ability of our ancestors to cover such distances in such relatively short time the following is submitted for consideration.

The Homo Sapiens (modern Humans) evolved not as better walker or as having a bigger brain. In fact, the Neanderthals had a larger brain and were bigger and brawnier than the humans. The Denisovans are thought to have been even bigger. The humans had a more folded brain giving it greater surface area and evolved as better runners/joggers. The gracile build, the lack of excessive body hair and the ability to sweat profusely from all over the body allowed them to dissipate body heat far more effectively and so be able to steadily run down any other creature on land enabling persistent hunting.

The only animals that had the ability to chase for longer times than the other predators, though not as well as the humans, were the wolves, which lived in family packs with a leader and seemed to have been first domesticated by the humans from the Indian wolf species, into what we today call dogs, well over 35,000 years ago.

Unlike the Cro-Magnons or Neanderthals or even Denisovans or the many other hominid species, the humans did not establish home bases in caves, with the men hunting in groups while the women would be staying in or near the caves with their young and be involved in gathering and preparing food and processing hides etc.

The humans may have also, sheltered in caves at times, or in innovatively designed shelters built of Mammoth tusks and hides, when they migrated into Europe and North-East Asia when the Ice Age began receding, but before that they mostly lived a nomadic life on the move following the migrating animals in the open savannah plains. They moved with what they could carry. Pregnant mothers and even new mothers, within a few hours of giving birth and helped as necessary by the grandmothers, also, followed the group, with the newborn babies being carried by the elderly, as they hunted their prey animals and stalked and chased their prey into exhaustion and collapse. Much like the ‘Khoisan’ or San Bushmen of Southern Africa and the Tarahumara Indians of Mexico, did till even a few decades ago.

The development of the ability to discern and read the signs and spoor left by the animals they hunted and of the ability to better recognize the individual animal by its skin pattern and its spoor, allowed them to keep chasing their target animal even as it tried to mingle into to the similarly, patterned herd. Also, the development of the ability to project themselves into imagining how the animal would move and behave even before the hunt started, allowed the human brain to develop better thinking, forecasting and social and greater adaptive abilities. All this, and the better speech ability, advantaged them greatly over the other hominids and built into them the curiosity, the sense of inquiry and the social affinity, ability and awareness that has made us humans into what we are today.

This ability of humans, to cover vast distances and even to run down their prey, is well documented in the book ‘Born to Run’ by Christopher MacDougall, it is also, proven by the fact that the traveler Mensen Ernst ran from Constantinople to Calcutta in the 19th century and after 3 days ran back again in about 59 days. Robert Barclay Allardice won a bet to cover 1600 kms in 1000 hours. He also, later covered the 115 kms from London to Portsmouth in just 9 hours. These runners were not running on roads but across country paths and over mountain-ous terrain and passes at speeds of over 140 kms per day. Also, 53-year-old Dean Karnazes ran 560 kms without sleeping, in just over 80 hrs. and 44 mins. Many others constantly ran even longer distances. Hence, running 40 to 50 kms each day would have even been routine.

It may be of interest to know that over such ultra-marathon distances, women showed better capabilities than men. Hence, we can easily believe that they not only moved with the tribe even when pregnant, but also, gave birth and a few hours later, with the help of the grandmothers, moved on with the tribe. The grandfathers, when not joining in the hunt, helped protect and teach the young.

It is another interesting fact that research has recognized that human physical running ability from age 19 increased up to age 28, when it peaked, and thereafter started declining at a surprisingly slow rate, such that the same capa-bility as was there at age 19 was present at age 64 years. Though few, if any, of the ancients may have lived that long, the fact that such capability existed in the older members of the tribe proves that they were not only able to hunt and teach the young, but also, able to help as needed. The difference being the greater time needed by them for recovery or recuperation.

Margret Mead, the Anthropologist, said that the indication of civilization was when the skeletal remains of one of its members showed a healed femur (thigh bone). This indicated that the injured person was taken care of over long months, and not just left to die as he could no longer move with the tribe. Helping another through difficulty is when civilization starts. Humans have been doing so for many millennia.

Now, about the population of other hominids in India, Southeast Asia and the rest of Asia, including in the Himalayas and Tibet. There exists enough archaeological evidence that at least Neanderthals and perhaps even other hominid species, had lived in India from well before the Toba eruption and that some of them had even survived the disastrous effects of that eruption, as evidenced by stone tools found both below and above the ash layer.

There is genetic evidence of some inter breeding of these populations with humans up to about 30,000 years ago in Europe and even as late as up to 10,000 to 15,000 or so years ago in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. It is spec-ulated that the Vanaras and other species mentioned in the Ramayana epic may have been these hominids. It is interesting to note that the male Vanaras in the Ramayana are described as with tails, while female and infant Vanaras were not. Hence it is likely that the so-called tail was not an integral body part, but a long whip like weapon wrapped around the body of males, with the handle jutting out up the back to over the shoulder for easy access.

Asians and other non-African human populations have about 2 percent, not necessarily the same, hence allowing us to today recreate up to 40 percent, of each of both Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA. Even African humans have some slight traces of such DNA, indicating some back to Africa migration. It is some of this Denisovan DNA that gives the Himalayan peoples the ability to adapt to cold and higher altitudes.

A nomadic or a semi-settled life on the Savannah and Steppes would have been a very difficult life, the demands for survival not leaving time to develop a higher level of philosophy or technology. It was only when our ancestors found more permanent shelters, better and consistent sources of food, in the Indian sub-continent, that adequate population growth and density of settlements arose to allow philosophy, technology and even agriculture to develop. People here settled into Gramas (Villages), and than spread along the river banks and settled into.Janapadas (Small Republics), which even grew into Mahajanapadas (Greater Republics) and later into Kingdoms.

The Rig-Veda makes many references to the mighty River Saraswati from even before the River Yamuna, its tributary, changed its course, perhaps due to some earthquake in the Himalayas, around 40,000 years ago to then become a tributary of the River Ganges. This nomenclature of calling Yamuna a tributary continued even though the Yamuna was a bigger river than the Ganges, perhaps because the Ganges was older as an independent river. There is evidence in the Rig-Veda that some of its hymns are estimated as having been composed as early as 60,000 BCE though others were composed as late as 23,700 years ago. The tectonic disturbances then also, seem to have affected the Civilization there and led to considerable out of India migration to other regions across the world. A migration takes place only out of curiosity or when conditions there are unsatisfactory for some or other reason.

Modern Humans are said to have evolved over 250 to 3, 00,000 years ago in South Africa and only moved into the Indian sub-continent after the Toba eruption. If today’s historians claim that humans moved from the Stone Age into our present Space Age in a period of only about 10,000 years, it then raises the question; what other civilizations arose and disappeared in the other 240 to 290,000 years? (See – Annexure below). Mention of the Northern Lights in the Rig-Veda evidences some early migration into those regions from India, perhaps into Cen-tral and North-East Asia / Siberia, which were then cold but ice free, and return to India from even before the Ice Age began retreating elsewhere. Life in those areas was still nomadic and tribal and did not allow for settlements with a population density adequate to develop a civilization.

As there really was no Homo Sapien civilization in Europe in those times, due to the ice caps, it is evident that all migration could have only been outwards from the Indian region, into those regions. Obviously much of such migration would have mostly been of young males seeking adventure, though of course some families or groups would have also, migrated, moving away from what by then was a more settled and sedentary life in the Indian region, though relatively more prosperous, some may have returned, and some may have stayed on. Those that stayed on there would soon have forgotten their Civilization and descended into tribal clan culture, perhaps in even as little as three generations, as the living conditions would have been very harsh then.

The finding of a 31 cm tall ivory statue of the Lion–man (Narasimha) dated to about 40,000 BCE in Germany and the dating of the Kalpa Vigraha idol of Lord Vishnu (from Musthang valley in Tibet), to around 26,450 BCE, made of a yet unidentified metal with a composition somewhat like brass, along with an accompanying manuscript written in pre-Rig-Vedic Sanskrit, indicates an advanced civilization in the Himalayan and Southern Himalayan region before then. It may also, be noted that the Iron artifacts found in Telangana in South- Central India and dated to around 2000 BCE evidence that the Iron Age in the world first started in Central India. Zinc extraction was also, first started in India, though at a later time.

The last Ice Age had begun receding around 35,000 to 25,000 BCE. However, it is speculated that around 14,500 BCE, a very large Icy comet broke up in the Earth’s atmosphere and its pieces struck the remaining North American Ice cap and caused massive flooding, volcanic activity, earthquakes, and tsunamis and caused the Earth to move sharply into another, even colder Ice age (The Younger Dryas Ice Age).

It is also, speculated that a major solar coronal mass ejection event around 12,900 BCE, caused the Younger Dryas Ice Age to end in just over a night and a day, as seen from an Indian perspective being on the opposite or night hemisphere, in the Pacific Ocean region, causing almost instantaneous evaporation of millions of cubic miles of water, and its cooling in the upper atmosphere and then falling back to the earth as ice and rains. The sea levels then rose to about the present levels. Such rapid climatic change requires energy dispersion that can only be caused by the Sun.

This event may have also, resulted in the crustal displacement of parts of the Earth that is speculated to have shifted Siberia from its till then temperate location well into the Arctic Circle and simultaneously shifted the Antarctic about 2000 Kms, from its northern areas being around 30 degrees South Latitude, into it all moving to above the South Pole. Such a major solar event would have evaporated immensely large quantities of sea water, drastically lowering the sea levels and causing great gravitational variations and also causing heavy rains, volcanic activity, tsunamis, and the dumping of immense quantities of ice in the higher latitudes and resurgence of seas immediately thereafter. This could be the event that ancient tales from all around the world recollect as the Great global flood.

This sudden, almost instantaneous shift and the sudden extreme cold there, is evidenced by the finding of the bodies of mammoths in Siberia which still had mouthfuls of fresh grasses and flowers and had been almost flash frozen and killed even before they could swallow them. Fossils of trees and animals in the Antarctic are also, evidence of such a sudden shift, as it is obvious that plant life could not develop under the Polar conditions of six months of darkness and layers of Ice deposits.

The Indian sub-continent seems to have been protected by its location. How-ever, the tectonic activity would have cause damage to the settlements there and even caused the Sutlej River at around this time, 12,900 BCE, to shift its course, leaving the River Saraswati and becoming a tributary of the River Indus.

During the Ice Age, sea levels had dropped to being about 130 to 140 meters below the present levels. Such lower sea levels exposed a great portion of the land joining the Southeast Asian region to Indonesia and Borneo, a huge land mass, twice the size of India, called Sundaland. The speculation about Lemuria and a Kumari Kandam as located in the Indian Ocean has been proven wrong by geo-logical and oceanographic studies, Kumari Kundam could have been Sundaland. It is hypothesized, that a major civilization developed on Sundaland and perhaps even in Antarctica and even in Mauritania in West Africa from around 40,000 BCE. The mythical Atlantis may have existed in one of these locations. Sundaland seems the best option.

The spread of Vedic and later civilization from India into Sundaland and its bloom there, and its subsequent migration into all of South-East Asia is a prob-ability that needs consideration. It may also, be noted that all maps of ancient times show the South at the top, evidence of the North being under Ice and hence, being relatively insignificant.

Nilesh Nilakant Oak has done all of us a great service by his systematic and irrefutable dating of some key events from our Epics, using the astronomical and other references therein and relating them to the Sidereal Calendar and to evidence from other Sciences. The Rama-Ravana war, as determined by him, occurred in12,209 BCE. Obviously as the Ramayana speaks to us of the Vedic civilization and a level of urbanization that existed from even earlier times, Astronomy, Philosophy, Mathematics, Science, Logic, Geography, Medicine, and Metallurgy etc., all then existed, and all originated from this region and was then spread from here to all over South-east Asia and elsewhere.

Graham Hancock, Robert Schock and many other writers have dated the construction Sphinx and of its orientation and the construction of much of the Giza pyramids to about 10,500 BCE when the Sphinx would have mirrored the constellation Leo and the Milky Way would have been seen as the continuation of the River Nile into the sky. The knowledge of the binary (actually trinary) Stars Arundhati and Vashist in the Sirius Constellation and the orientation of the Giza Pyramids with the three stars in the belt of the Orion constellation and of the orientation of so many other megalithic monuments across the globe, all seem to indicate a major effort from a destroyed civilization striving to transfer knowledge to by then, isolated populations across the globe and to leave monuments as lasting proof of their abilities and of having existed. All civilizations need not necessarily have been based on electro-mechanical power. It is today speculated that the Ancient Civilization was based on light and sound frequency, resonance, and magnetic power.

As Lord Rama had to build a bridge across the Palk straits to reach Lanka, the sea levels would have had to be about the same as the present levels. This evidences that this was after the Younger Dryas Ice Age i.e., after 12,900 BCE and supports the dating of the Rama – Ravana war of having occurred at 12,209 BCE as determined by Nilesh Oak. We then also, have Nilesh Oak’s dating of the Mahabharata War as having happened in 5561 BCE, again from irrefutable astronomic and other contextual data. He also, tentatively dated the earliest version of the ‘Surya Siddantha’ as having been written in around 14,500 BCE or even earlier.

In the Mahabharata War, the many Kings mentioned include Kings from all over India, from present day Afghanistan and eastern Iran in the West to Manipur and Nagaland in the East and from Kashmir in the North to Kings from all over the Deep South. Evidencing that by this time India was easily culturally a Nation that was well civilized and developed and prosperous enough for each of the many Kings to maintain an army and move it across the Country to fight with their allies.

The Sindhu-Saraswati Civilization has left many archaeological ruins of spectacular cities along the banks of these rivers. It is estimated that the River Saraswati slowly dried out and became an underground flow sometime between 3000 to 4000 BCE. The 200 year long drought / monsoon failure around the same time is thought to be the cause of the abandonment of these urban centres leading to extensive migration into the Gangetic plains into smaller settlements and also, into the rest of India and towards the West (Eastern Iran and Central Asia). Research shows that even the Vedic Civilization went through many catastrophes in which knowledge was lost and had to be re-discovered over the Ages.

Raj Vedam and many other researchers have quoted genetic and archaeological evidence to finally disprove the Aryan Invasion Theory, which had been formulated and spread by the European Christian colonizers who saw it as a necessary hypothesis to protect the story of Genesis in their Biblical belief system and to project themselves as being of a more advanced civilization than that of India.

Genetics has proven that all Indians have originated from the same ancestral family and there are no Aryans or Dravidians and that in fact, it is from this region that migrations had taken place to the rest of the world from even as early as 40,000 BCE and more effectively from 12900 BCE and later.

The discovery that the Gene that makes some South-Asians fair is the same gene that makes Europeans fairer than most of the world and that this mutation originated in the western Himalayan region and was carried by migrants from there into Europe around 25 to 40,000 BCE or even later around 12900 BCE, clearly evidences the out of India migration. A mutation would spread extensively in smaller populations and not so extensively in larger populations, though even in South India today many people having fair complexion can be found. Ofcourse, climatic and other conditions would have also, added to the effect through epigenetic expression. The fair skin colour of the East Asians is due to a different Gene. It may be noted that the original colour of the skin (Brown), hair (Black), and eye (Black/Brown) of all the Homo Sapiens, is what is seen in the San Bushmen of the South African/ Kalahari region, who are the most ancient of the Homo sapiens and show the oldest genetic strains of all humans.

It is an established historic fact that any isolated population of less than about 30,000 people in any region, especially where living is a struggle, would continue reducing and will within a few generations forget all its civilizational roots and descend into feral tribalism, even as they may later join up with other such tribal groups and strive to build another civilization. Such population collapse can be seen in Tasmania, Easter Island, and even in the Andaman’s.

It should also, be noted that the Genetics of field mice from all over the world, show them as having originated from the Indian field mouse and spread worldwide with migration and the spread of agriculture and trade from the Indian region some 40,000 to 20,000 years ago. The Middle Eastern history of Mesopo-tamia and Sumeria could also, have been more ancient than 4000 BCE, perhaps even as old as 10,500 BCE. The recent discovery of ancient structures at Gobekli Tepe and Karahan Tepe in Turkey, estimated to be from around 12,500 years ago, proves the case.


A proper understanding of pre-historic climatic conditions shows that human civilization developed only in the Indian Sub-continent from as early as 65,000 BCE and spread subsequently across the world as climatic conditions allowed. Today, people who deny such irrefutable evidence do so out of some vested interest which will soon be exposed by further future discoveries.

Recognizing that we are all children of only FIVE to TWELVE ancestral mothers let us ALL be proud of our ancient knowledge, culture and history and learn from it, and not be arrogant about where it may have originated from or developed in.


The question of other Hominid civilizations having existed during these thousands of years remains to be properly answered. The finding of over 3000 elongated skulls of a few months’ old children to adults, white skinned, red haired and having green and blue eyes in Paracas in Peru and other South American sites and also, in Iran, with a skull capacity for a brain one and a half times or even bigger than ours and whose genetic studies show as having a Central Asian background from about 40,000 years ago, and the fact that many of our ancient Gods have Crowns that indicate elongated skulls which are also, shown in the Egyptian Drawings of a Pharaoh and his wife and children. Also, the curious custom of some tribes to bind the skulls of their children in an attempt to try and show some links to such people and claim status, all indicate that such elongated skull people had great status, perhaps even being considered Gods. Perhaps it was such people who were responsible for the Megalithic structures across the world?

Another question that awaits an answer is that – as humans display characteristics, physiological, social, cognitive, and even genetic, similar to that displayed by all domesticated animals, who then domesticated humans, or did humans self-domesticate, if that is at all possible?

The question of the veracity of the tales inscribed on the Sumerian / Mesopotamian clay tablets about the ‘Annunaki’ and the creation of humans, and of gold mining and terrace farming in South Africa around the ‘Great Zimbabwe’ and ‘Adam’s Calendar’ ruins and the many fossils found there, all need further verification. The tales in the Book of Enoch and the story of Gilgamesh also needs further study.

The findings of tall skeletons from America, Europe, South Africa and even in India and the many tales of Giants also, raise questions that are still unanswered. It was only a few years ago that the discovery of skeletons of people less than 4 feet tall on the island of Flores, now called Homo Floresiensis or Hobbits shook the world.

The many human foot prints, some overlaid by the foot prints of Dinosaurs, some even with footwear, in Nevada, Arizona and Texas and the many cave draw-ings of fully fleshed Dinosaurs from across the world, have yet to be explained.

Pre-History, perhaps has even more older chapters than what we are only now beginning to be aware of.

We also need to find the answers to the many ‘Out Of Place Artifacts – OOPARTS’ found all over the world’ dated from millions of years ago to a few thousand years ago.

We also need to understand how it is that the distance of the Sun and Moon from the Earth when divided by the diameter of Sun and the Earth respectively yields a ratio of 108, and also how it is that the Sun and the Moon, seen from the Earth seem to have the same diameter. All this is too unique to be purely coincidental. We need to keep an open mind and await the conclusions of researchers in all these fields.